10 fascinating facts about Francis Bacon
10 fascinating facts about Francis Bacon
We explore the truth about Francis Bacon - the man behind the most valuable artwork at auction
Francis Bacon's Three Studies of Lucian Freud has just become the most valuable artwork ever sold at auction, and for good reason. Bacon, an Irish-born painter, is considered one of the finest British artists to have ever lived, his work renowned for exuding raw emotion.
Francis Bacon and Lucian Freud painted a series of portraits of each other
But like all great artists, there is more to the man than his art. Paul Fraser Collectibles looks at the facts that made Bacon one of the most beguiling and enigmatic painters of the 20th century.
- He destroyed most of his early works
Though he achieved recognition during his lifetime (1909-1992), Bacon's career got off to a slow start. Beginning in his early 20s, he was unsure of his own abilities and worked only intermittently until well into his 30s.
A ruthless self-critic, Bacon destroyed much of his early work, tearing his canvases so that they would never see the light of day. It wasn't until he found patrons in his wealthy lovers that Bacon saw any hint of recognition.
- Bacon used the reverse of his canvases
Torn fragments of Bacon's canvasses surfaced at auction in 2012
Also accounting for the lack of early work from the artist is the fact that he reused many of his canvases. At first, this was due to his lack of funds, but it later became his preference, and many masterworks are now painted on the unprimed reverse of the canvas.
"Well, I was living once down in Monte Carlo and I had lost all my money, and, I had no canvases left and so, the few I had I just turned them, and I found that... what is called the wrong side, the unprimed side of the canvas worked for me very much better," he explained in an interview with Melvyn Bragg in 1985.
"So I've always used them. So it was just by chance that I had no money to buy canvases with."
- He was first employed as an interior designer
Bacon's rugs were inspired by his European travels
Having returned to London following a brief spell in Berlin and Paris, Bacon set up a studio in South Kensington. However, the studio was not intended for his artwork, but rather his work as an interior designer.
Characteristically, when Bacon discovered his passion for art, he destroyed most of his interior designs. However, two rugs that Bacon created surfaced at auction in 2012, yet uncertainty over their origins meant they went unsold.
- Bacon had a noble ancestry
Bacon is a descendant of Sir Francis Bacon, a renowned philosopher and statesman
Despite his modest upbringing in Dublin and later England, Bacon's ancestors were prominent members of the Elizabethan court. His father is believed to have been a direct descendant of Sir Nicholas Bacon (1540-1624), the first man to be created a baronet and half-brother of Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626), the renowned philosopher, statesman and scientist who served as attorney general and lord chancellor.
- His life is marked with violent relationships
Bacon's Study for Portrait of PL
For much of his life, Bacon was involved with London's homosexual underworld. Having advertised himself as a "gentleman's companion" on the front page of the Times newspaper, he found numerous lovers, yet each one of his relationships was marred with violence or unhappiness.
Perhaps the most tempestuous of these was his relationship with Peter Lacy, in which the artist was frequently beaten and Lacy tore up some of his finest works.
Art historian John Richardson, who wrote a biography of Bacon, explained in the New York Review of Books: "Unfortunately, drink released a fiendish, sadistic streak in Lacy that bordered on the psychopathic.
"In a state of alcoholic dementia, he hurled Bacon through a plate glass window. His face was so damaged that his right eye had to be sewn back into place. Bacon loved Lacy even more. For weeks he would not forgive Lucian Freud for remonstrating with his torturer. Mercifully, Lacy moved to Tangier."
Bacon's portrait of Lacy appeared at Sotheby's in May with an estimate of $30m-40m, but failed to sell.
- While celebrated now, his work was divisive
The raw, visceral nature of Bacon's work has divided both critics and the public for years. Like most great artists, he is not universally loved, buteven those with a distaste for his paintings havecome to recognise himfor his importance to art.
Margaret Thatcher once described Bacon as "that man who paints those dreadful pictures". Yet Bacon maintained that it was not his intention to shock, stating: "You can't be more horrific than life itself."
The market for Bacon's work truly took off following his death in 1992, and reached the heights we know today in the late-1990s, when several examples of his work that were thought to have been destroyed were sold at auction with record-breaking results.
- Bacon was obsessed with screaming
Study after Velazquezs Portrait of Pope Innocent X is the best-known work of the 'Screaming Pope' series
In becoming the most valuable work sold at auction, Bacon's Three Studies of Lucian Freud displaces Edvard Munch's The Scream, which sold for $119.9m in May 2012. Yet Bacon was also obsessed with the image of a screaming figure, and it became a major theme of his work.
The inspiration behind Bacon's screaming faces is said to stem from medical books, particularly a book on diseases of the mouth that Bacon bought in Paris in 1935, which remaining imprinted in his mind for the rest of his life.
Another major influence is Sergei Eisenstein's famed movie Battleship Potemkin (1925), with Bacon keeping a photographic still of a screaming nurse from the film in his studio.
- The death of George Dyer profoundly affected Bacon's work
Triptych May-June 1973 was painted as Bacon reeled from the loss of his lover
Bacon's work has always been preoccupied with dark, haunting imagery, but it becamedominated by death following the suicide of his lover George Dyer.
Dyer, a Londoncriminal and alcoholic, was fragile in nature, and the once-bullied Bacon became the dominant power in the relationship, using his new-found wealth to control him.
"Bacon would goad George into a state of psychic meltdown and then, in the early hours of the morning - his favourite time to work - he would exorcise his guilt and rage and remorse in images of Dyer aimed, as he said, at the nervous system," wrote John Richardson.
Dyer eventually took an overdose of barbiturates and died in 1971. Bacon was devastated, and his work took a noticeably darker tone for the rest of his life.
- He is portrayed by Derek Jacobi in the film of his life
James Bond actor Daniel Craig plays Bacon's alcoholic lover George Dyer
Respected actor and stage director Sir Derek Jacobi was chosen to portray Francis Bacon in the film of his life, Love is the Devil (1998). The film explores Bacon's life in London's Soho, with James Bond actor Daniel Craig playing George Dyer.
Joined by Tilda Swinton as Bacon's friend Murial Belcher, the film is based on Daniel Farson's 1993 biography The Gilded Gutter Life of Francis Bacon.
1.Bacon's studio can still be seen in Dublin
Following a series of tumultuous love affairs, Bacon eventually found respite with John Edwards in 1974, with whom he spent the remainder of his life. Following his death from respiratory problems in 1992, Bacon bequeathed his entire 11m estate to Edwards.
In 1998, the Hugh Lane Gallery in Dublin received the contents of Bacon's London studio as a donation. The items were used to reconstruct the studio, which has been open to the public since 2001 and contains some 570 books, 1,500 photographs, 100 slashed canvases and 70 drawings.