Mutton Fat White Jade ????

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2015-06-26 10:41:36

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A+Mutton+Fat+White+Jade+carved+Camel+001.JPG### Mutton Fat White Jade 羊脂白玉

Mutton Fat White Jade

Mutton Fat White Jade is also called Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade or Sheet-Fat-Oily White Jade by some collectors.

In ancient China, mutton fat white jade was called Mutton Fat Jade only. Modern people are used to take pure white “White Jade” for granted as Mutton Fat White Jade, thus White has been always inserted in the Mutton Fat Jade by modern collectors.

What is it?

We know that jade is a beautiful semi-translucent precious stone that is denser than other stones and characterized by shiny, smooth, heavy surfaces and distinct sounds when knocked on. The beautiful characteristics of this work of art have led to its value as a wonderful decorative keepsake, as well as a great collection for investment, due to the fact that the Archaic Ancient Old Jade grows in value as it ages.

Mutton Fat White Jades can be further classified by archaic ancient and modern ones. Archaic ancient ones are those carved in Han Dynasty China from 206 B.C. to A.D. 220 and owned by the Han Emperor’s family. Then it was not allowed for people not in the imperial family to own such excellent jades in private. Modern ones are those discovered and carved after Qing Dynasty China from A.D. 1644 until nowadays.

There are two major differences between archaic ancient and modern Mutton Fat White Jades. One major difference is that archaic ancient Mutton Fat White Jades have semi-boiled rice phenomena in the jades’ muscular tissues nevertheless modern ones have no such phenomena.

Another difference is that archaic ancient Mutton Fat White Jades have been buried in the earth for more than 2000 years and have been confirmed and tested the same oily in luster and smooth in surface as carved before after such a severe thousands years of burying underground, while modern ones have not been tested in the earth for 2000 years yet. The quality of modern ones is still unknown to us.

People are used to take pure white jades with oily luster as modern Mutton Fat White Jades, and it’s really very difficult to decide it’s true or not. We can’t bury these pure white jades with oily luster in the earth for another 2000 years to examine if they are qualified not to be destroyed as archaic ancient ones. We have no governmental standards to compare if they are true Mutton Fat White Jades or not, as until so far there are still no such standards published by related governmental organizations. Thus everybody has a different measuring ruler in his own mind and modern Mutton Fat White Jades have become so popular almost everywhere in the world for you to examine them freely with volume. Since there are no standards, there are no true criteria, neither. People has to judge by his own preference.

Besides archaic ancient Mutton Fat White Jades were carved with extremely smooth “His Imperial Majesty Dignity of Han Emperor and an Appearance of King” by the excellent imperial jade carving master in Western Han Dynasty China for certain and modern Mutton Fat White Jades are absolutely not to be done and copied by modern carvings in this respect.

A Carved Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant was carved with extremely smooth “His Imperial Majesty Dignity of Han Emperor's Family and an Appearance of King's Family” by the excellent imperial jade carving master in Western Han Dynasty China.

A Carved Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Emperor's Extremely Good Auspices Presented by Dragon and Phoenix Pendant was also carved with extremely smooth “His Imperial Majesty Dignity of Han Emperor and an Appearance of King” by the excellent imperial jade carving master in Western Han Dynasty China.

History

Among the Archaic Ancient Old Jades of various kinds, the Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jade was a gem class jade of the best quality ever found in Han Dynasty China 206 B.C. - A.D. 25. Since it was so recorded in the history 2000 years ago, modern people have never seen it nowadays. It was the only privilege jade of ancient Emperors' family in Han Dynasty China.

Used in art

The work of art made by this kind of jade was left so scarcely and has been seen rarely in this world. Thus modern people can only use personal imaginations and the data searched from internet to guess what it was and try to figure out what it would have been looked like. Its color is as that of fresh sheep fat just cut and has oily shining luster. Its inner jade muscular tissue contents have semi-boiled rice phenomena commonly existing in the natural ancient archaic old jades. Nevertheless the jades those were carved in Ming Dynasty, Qing Dynasty, and Modern China have no such phenomena.

Appearance

It looks like foggy translucent due to its sheep Mutton Fatlike Oily Luster appearance, while white jade looks different in this respect. Its oily white shining luster is seen with slight yellow light. It's oily and solid, translucent and clean, white and without cracks, just like the solidified sheep oily Mutton Fat. Its skin has no deceiving glass light, thus can be slightly varied after the long-term wear attached to human skin by its owner, while the jade that has been manually handled with deceiving glass light in its appearance has no such a function of varied skin colors any more.

The archaic works of art done by this kind of jade are rare.

A Carved Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily White Jade Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant 206 B.C. - A.D. 25 Western Han Dynasty China (H 4.4 x W 6.7 x D 1 cm 56 grams) was carved with the same "Archaic Mutton Fat Oily White Jade" as that used in "Western Han Queen's Seal" (H 2 x W 2.8 x D 2.8 cm 33 grams) collected by Shaanxi History Museum, Shaanxi Province, China.

Another typical example is a Carved Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade "Linking Clouds" Emperor's Extremely Good Auspices Presented by Dragon and Phoenix Pendant 206 B.C. - A.D. 25 Western Han Dynasty China (Size: Diameter 7 x Depth 0.6 cm, Weight: 54 g).

This Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade Linking Clouds Emperor's Extremely Good Auspices Presented by Dragon and Phoenix Pendant was carved with extremely smooth “His Imperial Majesty Dignity of Han Emperor and an Appearance of King” by the excellent imperial jade carving master in Western Han Dynasty China 206 B.C. - A.D. 25.

Even if the "Archaic Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade" has been buried in the water and earth for more than 2000 years, it is only slightly soaked in skin parts and still has the same smooth, shiny, oily luster as before due to its solid and dense quality. This is its very precious value never to be broken over thousands of years and the main reason why it has been classified as gem class valuable precious stone.

The "Archaic Mutton Fat White Jade Carved Western Han Queen's Seal" (Weight 33 g) collected by Shaanxi History Museum, Shaanxi Province, China, and the "Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily White Jade Carved Western Han Dynasty Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant", both are rare and have been buried in the water and earth for more than 2000 years, but they are only slightly soaked in skin parts and still has the same smooth, shiny, oily luster as before due to its solid and dense quality. This proves that their very precious value never to be broken over thousands of years and the main reason why the works of art carved by Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade have been always classified as gem class valuable national treasures in jade market.

Wonderful and Amazing Soakage of an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jade

The "Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily White Jade Carved Western Han Dynasty Linking Clouds Royal Dragon Pendant" has incidentally been soaked in its tail skin part to become "dark brown". Thus it's also a very beautiful jade carved work of art with rather rare "Wonderful and Amazing Soakage of Mutton Fat White Jade - An Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily White Jade Carved Sheep Dragon with Dark Brown Tail" existing in the world nowadays.

Basic Concepts of Authenticity Examinations for Archaic Ancient Old Jades and Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades

(1) Scratch Test: Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades are firm enough to resist from Scratch Test by human finger nails.

(2) Semi-Translucence Test: Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades are semi-translucent under the light of portable flashlight.

(3) Sound Test: The sound of an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White jade knocked slightly on another jade is just like that from a fine musical instrument and very clear. It’s not such heavy as those sounds knocked by stones or plastic goods.

(4) Soakage Color Test: The soakage color formed in the earth for thousands of years are natural. People are used to put Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades in pure clear warm water for at least one day and one night to see if the soakage color is still remained the same as usual before to judge if it’s dyed manually. From long-term basis, the manually dyed Fakes will fade their false soakage colors into one another gradually.

(5) Age Test: The Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades must have the appearance and totems of Imperial Royal His Majesty Dignity of an Emperor or a King in Han Dynasty China. This is quite different from the modern jade carved work of art designed just for an Art purpose only.

(6) Carvings of Holes Test: The holes of Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades were not straight penetrated from one side. They were penetrated from two sides and formed a curve path gap between two holes from each side.

(7) Carvings of Lines Test: The inclined feminine lines of Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades were not carved by machine tools that make lines straight forward with two sides of line wall straight upward vertically. They were carved one side of line wall straight upward vertically, while another side of line wall plane inclined by ancient bronze jade carving wheels.

(8) Totems test: The Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades must have Jade Carving Totems used in Han dynasty to be presented to the Imperial Royal His Majesty Dignity of an Emperor or a King in Han Dynasty China.

(9) Smooth Carvings Test: The Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades were carved by imperial skillful hand-made jade carving masters and must be carved simply, clearly and smoothly upon specially selected solid fine jades. This kind of carving is not existed in modern world by machine tools and art carving artists or sculptors.

(10) Weight (Density) Test: A true experienced jade collector or dealer can easily tell the difference between an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jade and other stones by just holding this Jade in hand to feel its heavy weight of high density.

(11) Surface Test: The surface of an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White is very smooth and quite different from other stones. A true experienced jade collector or dealer can easily tell the difference between this Jade and other stones by just touching the surface of an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White jade carved work of art gently with his fingers.

(12) Color Test: A true experienced jade collector or dealer can easily tell the difference between an Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jade and other stones by just examining its natural beautiful color appeared in front of human eyes.

Reasons for Archaic Ancient Mutton Fat White Jades to become Gem Class Most Valuable National Treasures

The reasons why the “Archaic Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade” is classified as gem class valuable precious stone and the works of art carved by this jade have been always classified as gem class valuable national treasures are as follows:

(1) Its firm character of being not to be destroyed in the water and earth even after having been buried for thousands of years: The hardness, solidness and firmness of the “Archaic Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade” are better than steel, iron, and other kinds of jades. The discovered ones prove that even if having been buried in the water and earth for 2000 years, they have still the same smooth, shiny, oily luster as before with the same sheep fatlike oily luster as their original carvings had, and is not to be destroyed. These jades are really the best research and development objects of the material engineering science in the world.

(2) The beautiful characteristic semi-translucent nature shown like the changeable skin color of a lizard: Due to their natural semi-translucent character, once these jades are placed in front of backgrounds of different colors, the gorgeous colors shown by these jades are to be changed accordingly. Thus they are amazingly beautiful!

Due to the beautiful natural characteristic semi-translucent nature shown like the changeable skin color of a lizard, once Archaic Mutton Fat White Jade is placed in front of backgrounds of six different colors, the gorgeous colors shown by this jade is to be changed accordingly.

(3) Scarcity of discovery, dense and tiny cubic volume, nevertheless bigger than diamond, can be carved into fine works of art by ancient Chinese: The formation of the “Archaic Mutton Fat Oily Luster White Jade” is under the same pressure coefficient from the crust of the earth as diamond on account of its solid and dense characters. Thus these jades are scarce and rare with dense and tiny cubic volume. Nevertheless they are still bigger than diamonds. Diamonds are not to be carved into fine works of art in different shapes full of variety by mankind, but these jades can be done freely. These archaic jades prove that even 2000 years ago, ancient Chinese had already developed the high technology to carve these extremely firm and hard “Archaic Mutton Fat White Jade” into fine and beautiful work of art for the Imperial Emperor to appreciate the art.

(4) The Legend and Myth Stories of Jade Carved Works of Art done for thousands of years are always forever and forever to Chinese, and never to be ended: In ancient society of China, lots of Legend and Myth Stories of Jade Carved Works of Art done for thousands of years, such as their protections upon their owner mater's body good health, their collections of good lucks and fortunes in behalf of their owner master,…etc., have generally provoked Chinese directly to take great interests in the Jade Carved Works of Art owned by the ancient imperial royal family of the Emperor thousands of years ago. This is the so-called Chinese psychological historical affections upon these Archaic Ancient Old Jades that have been done for thousands of years.

(5) Due to their extremely valuable prices, nevertheless in very tiny cubic volume, easy to be carried by human body in transit and easy to be concealed or hidden from enemies, not to be damaged over thousands of years, have made these Jade Carved Works of Art to become the best haven investment commodity in ancient China: In ancient China, the First Emperor of Qin Dynasty ever tried to exchange his 15 cities for a famous Jade carved work of art called He-Shi-Bi from the Nation Zhao in the historical record. This proves that the Archaic Ancient Old Jades that have been done for thousands of years have been always the substitutes for the most valuable and expensive, high end, strongest currency since the ancient times until now. They are shaped in very tiny cubic volume, easy to be carried by human body in transit and easy to be concealed or hidden from enemies, as well as not to be damaged over thousands of years. Thus these natural features have benefited these Jade Carved Works of Art that have been done for thousands of years to become the best haven investment commodity in ancient China, no matter it was in peaceful or warring times.

Reference

(1) Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade carved Western Han Queen's Seal (H 2 x W 2.8 x D 2.8 cm 33 g) in Western Han Dynasty, Shaanxi History Museum, Shaanxi Province, China. http://www.sxhm.com/web/bgscn.asp?id=6578

(2) Archaic Sheep-Fat-Oily Mutton Fat White Jade carved Dragon Pendant and Cicada (collected by Nanjing Museum) in Western Han Dynasty, Hunan Provincial Museum, Hunan Province, China. http://www.hnmuseum.com/hnmuseum/collection/collectionWeekInfo.jsp?type=2&columnid=0120adc9a88c4028848320ac6cc70070&preid=010ca49c08a2402881c10ca495330009

(3) Mutton Fat White Jade in Chinese language, Encyclopedia of Taiwan, Ministry of Culture, Taiwan, R.O.C.

http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=100809

羊脂白玉

羊脂白玉可分成高古羊脂白玉與近現代羊脂白玉兩種。

高古羊脂白玉

高古羊脂白玉主要是指中國古代西元前206年至西元220年中國漢朝時期的皇帝家族特權專用玉, 亦為中國漢朝時期用玉中的寶石級極品,因為其質地非常硬密, 堅硬及強韌度遠遠勝過鋼鐵與其他類的玉種, 而出土的高古羊脂白玉亦證明其入土 2000 餘年卻仍然溫潤如初, 油脂光澤如故, 並未遭受毀壞,如下方三例︰

(1) 中國陝西省陜西歷史博物館的館藏 "高古羊脂白玉雕西漢皇后之璽" (1968年出土於陝西省咸陽市韓家灣狼家溝村。高 2.8 厘米,邊長 2.8 厘米,重 33 公克。)。

(2) 西元前206年至西元25年中國西漢朝時期 “高古羊脂白玉透雕漢朝皇帝用勾連雲紋龍鳳呈祥珮” (環珮直徑 7 厘米,厚度 0.6 厘米,重 54 公克。)。

(3) 西元前206年至西元25年中國西漢朝時期 “高古羊脂白玉透空圓雕漢朝皇室用勾連雲紋龍形珮” (珮高 4.4 厘米,寬 6.7 厘米,厚度 1 厘米,重 56 公克。)。

高古羊脂白玉的存世量極為稀少, 因此一直是極為罕見。 許多人品玉、賞玉、玩玉一輩子,卻無緣接觸到真正的高古羊脂白玉。此玉色若羊脂, 具油脂性光澤, 玉之白色肌裡有天然古玉的飯滲現象, 而明清及現代玉則無。 因其水頭足而呈霧狀之天然半透明狀, 此點則與白玉的明確白色玉皮外表略有不同。油脂光澤白色中則透出微微黃色, 有點像羊脂的乳白色或微微乳黃色。玉質溫潤堅密, 瑩透純淨, 潔白無瑕, 如同凝脂,縱使入土千年不壞,仍然溫潤堅密如故。 玉皮上並無任何的玻璃賊光現像,其皮色可因主人之長期盤玉而起微微的變化。

高古羊脂白玉並非是使用現代的機械工具所雕琢, 而是利用中國古代的手工雕法。 因此高古羊脂白玉之雕琢皆為厚實,簡練, 古工流暢, 並常常刻有中國西漢朝時期所常用之陰線花式勾連雲紋圖騰, 此皆為中國西漢朝時期的慣用玉雕技法與紋飾。 而高古羊脂白玉工藝品之玉皮上, 亦往往具備有非常清楚與明顯的中國古老羊脂白玉黃土微沁色於其玉皮上,但玉肉質則因質地非常硬密而往往千年不沁,一切仍舊溫潤堅密如故。

古玉及古羊脂白玉的基本真假鑑定觀念︰

(1) 指甲刮痕測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉之硬度足以抗拒人類指甲之任何刮傷痕跡。

(2) 半透光測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉於手電筒燈光照射時是半透光的。

(3) 敲擊聲測試︰以一件古玉及古羊脂白玉輕輕敲擊另一件古玉及古羊脂白玉時,可發出如精良樂器般清脆悅耳的聲音,不像其他類石頭或是塑膠製品之敲擊聲那麼悶重。

(4) 沁色測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉埋入土中數千年所產生的沁色是天然的。大家習慣將古玉及古羊脂白玉浸入清潔溫水中至少一天一夜以上,觀察其沁色是否仍然保持自然如前,藉以判斷是否為人工染色。從長期盤玉觀點而言,人工所染之色將逐漸褪去色彩而顯得不自然。

(5) 古老年代測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉必須具備有皇家皇帝或帝王之尊貴威嚴圖騰,此點與現代純粹以藝術工藝品為目的之現代玉石雕琢工藝確實有所不同。

(6) 鑽洞技術測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉之鑽洞技術並非是從一方以一洞直直地鑽到底;而是從兩方分別打洞而在兩洞之接觸點形成彎曲途徑的銜接縫隙接點。

(7) 陰刻線紋測試:古玉及古羊脂白玉之陰刻線紋並非是以形成線紋兩側溝壁皆是垂直向上直直往前行的現代電動手工具所刻成;其陰刻線紋是一側線紋溝壁為垂直向上,另一側線紋溝壁則是如傾斜平面般的勾撒斜刀法,主要是因為古代青銅製玉石雕琢舵輪工具所形成之故。

(8) 圖騰線紋測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉必須具備有皇家皇帝或帝王之尊貴威嚴圖騰線紋,如龍紋、鳳紋、勾連雲紋…等皆是。

(9) 雕工熟練平滑測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉雕工藝品是由古代皇室玉工以特選堅固玉石及熟練人工雕琢工藝技術所刻成。這種人工雕琢工藝技術在現代以電動手工具雕琢玉石的雕刻或雕塑藝術家中已經不存在。

(10) 手感沉重密度高測試︰有經驗的收藏家或經銷商,將古玉及古羊脂白玉放在手掌中,憑其手感沉重與否及密度高低便可斷出其玉石真偽。

(11) 玉皮平滑測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉的玉皮異常平滑,與其他類石頭顯然不同。有經驗的收藏家或經銷商,以手指頭輕柔地摸一摸古玉及古羊脂白玉所雕琢的工藝品表面,便可輕易分辨出其玉石真偽。

(12) 玉色自然美麗測試︰古玉及古羊脂白玉之玉色在人類眼睛面前顯得自然而美麗,有經驗的收藏家或經銷商一看便知其玉石真假。

高古羊脂白玉雕藝術品皆被當作是寶石級珍貴寶物的主要原因為:

(1) 高古羊脂白玉之堅硬及強韌度皆為遠勝過鋼鐵與其他類玉種, 而已出土的高古羊脂白玉更是證明其入土 2000 餘年卻是仍然溫潤如初, 油脂光澤溫潤如故, 並未能毀壞, 其刻成之工藝品可千年不壞。

(2) 因為高古羊脂白玉是天然半透明的, 所以當其背景的色系調節變化時, 高古羊脂白玉所顯示的天然絢麗色彩亦隨著變化,宛如蜥蝪變色龍一般,其半透明的天然美麗特質真是令人驚歎不已。

(3) 因其質地硬密, 形成時所承受之地殼壓力係數係相當於鑽石, 因此數量稀少, 體積不大, 卻比鑽石大,可供古代的中國人將之雕琢成精美的藝術品供皇帝鑑賞。

(4) 中國人對於古代皇室家族所持有的 “千年古玉” 可保護主人的身體健康與帶來主人的好心情及好運勢等等的神話與傳奇故事為歷久彌新,永不毀滅。

(5) 因其價值非常昂貴, 卻是體積很小, 便於一般人的貼身攜帶及藏匿, 又千年不易毀壞, 為古代中國人的最佳祖傳家寶與保值投資性避風港商品,故古人常云︰「黃金有價,玉卻無價。」。

近現代羊脂白玉

近現代羊脂白玉則是指清代以後所新開採的羊脂白玉而言,因為沒有國家或官方機構所制定的鑑定標準值可供參考,也不可能將近現代羊脂白玉埋入地下 2000 年,等 2000 年以後再挖出來看它是否真為千年不壞。因此一般人皆以具油脂光澤、外表潔白無瑕的白玉作為羊脂白玉的代表,但是因為沒有一定的標準值,也就無法說它到底是真還是不真,各人心中自然會有一把尺。

近現代羊脂白玉與高古羊脂白玉最大的差別在於高古羊脂白玉具有古玉的飯滲現象及已經歷經過古代 2000 餘年的入土千錘百鍊嚴峻考驗,故較為具體而真實。但近現代羊脂白玉並未有古玉的飯滲現象,也尚未接受過入土 2000 餘年的嚴厲測試。因此,是否真正為「千年不壞」還仍然是個未知數。

參考資料

(1) 陝西省陜西歷史博物館館藏羊脂白玉雕西漢皇后之璽 (1968年出土於陝西省咸陽市韓家灣狼家溝村。高 2.8 厘米,邊長 2.8 厘米,重 33 公克。)。http://www.sxhm.com/web/bgscn.asp?id=6578

(2) 湖南省博物馆 透雕动物纹玉嵌饰深入探索 汉代玉器欣赏 西汉后期 龙形玉佩 (南京博物馆藏长4. 7厘米 宽2. 8厘米 1974年江苏省盱眙县东阳四号墓出土羊脂白玉)。
http://www.hnmuseum.com/hnmuseum/collection/collectionWeekInfo.jsp?type=2&columnid=0120adc9a88c4028848320ac6cc70070&preid=010ca49c08a2402881c10ca495330009

(3) 羊脂白玉, 台灣大百科全書, 文化部, 台灣, 中華民國.

http://taiwanpedia.culture.tw/web/content?ID=100809

To Foresee Art Market Trend
預見藝術市場的未來走向

To foresee future trend from the ten most expensive artworks in 2012
從2012年最貴的 10 件藝術作品預見未來傾向

From the ten most expensive artworks in 2012 to foresee the increasingly significant prosperous future of fine Chinese paintings in the next ten years.
從2012年最貴的 10 件藝術作品可預見未來 10 年中國書畫精品日益增強而意義重大的昌盛未來.

From the article "The-10-most-expensive-artworks" published on 05 Feb. 2013 by www.telegraph.co.uk ( Website: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/artsales/9850514/The-10-most-expensive-artworks.html ) compared with fine Chinese paintings, we can easily foresee the increasingly significant prosperous future of fine Chinese paintings in the next ten years.

從英國網站 www.telegraph.co.uk 於 2013 年 2 月 5 日所發行之文章 "最昂貴的 10 件藝術作品" ( 網址: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/art/artsales/9850514/The-10-most-expensive-artworks.html ) 與中國書畫精品作比較, 我們可輕易預見未來 10 年中國書畫精品日益增強而意義重大的昌盛未來.

The Ten Most Expensive Artworks in 2012
2012 年最昂貴的 10 件藝術作品

#01
The Card Players 玩牌的人, Artist 畫家 : Paul Cézanne 保羅·塞尚, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £158.4 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : Handout

#02
No. 5 第5號, Artist 畫家 : Jackson Pollock 傑克遜·波洛克, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £89 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : Getty Images 蓋蒂圖片社

#03
Woman III 第三世仕女, Artist 畫家 : Willem de Kooning 威廉·德·庫寧, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £87.4 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : AFP

#04
Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer I 阿黛爾·布洛赫 - 鮑爾第一世的肖像, Artist 畫家 : Gustav Klimt 克林姆, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £85.7 million.

#05
The Scream 吶喊, Artist 畫家 : Edvard Munch 愛德華·蒙克, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £76.3 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : AFP

#06
Garcon à la Pipe 持煙斗的男孩, Artist 畫家 : Pablo Picasso 巴勃罗•毕加索 (巴勃羅•畢加索), Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £66.1 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : EPA

#07
Portrait of Dr Gachet 加歇醫生的肖像, Artist 畫家 : Vincent van Gogh 文森特·梵高, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £52.4 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : AP 美聯社

#08
Diana and Actaeon 黛安娜和阿克泰翁, Artist 畫家 : Titian 提香, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £50 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : Reuters 路透社

#09
Bal du Moulin de la Galette 巴爾·杜·摩林酒店德·拉·加萊特, Artist 畫家 : Pierre-Auguste Renoir 皮埃爾·奧古斯特·雷諾阿, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £49.6 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : Biography Channel 傳記頻道

#10
Portrait of Joseph Roulin 約瑟夫·羅林的肖像, Artist 畫家 : Vincent van Gogh 文森特·梵高, Price 價格 (百萬英鎊) : £36.7 million.

Picture 照片提供者 : Alamy

Top-Selling Artists of 2012 presented by Artnet

Artnet 所提供之 2012 年全球最佳銷售畫家排行榜

Top-Selling Artists of 2012 presented by Artnet
Artnet 所提供之 2012 年全球最佳銷售畫家排行榜

2012 Rank Artist Top Lot Sold in 2012
Total Value Sold in 2012
2012年排行 畫家 2012年最佳銷售作品
2012年銷售總金額

1 Andy Warhol (American 美國) Statue of Liberty 自由女神雕像
(US$43,762,500) US$380,535,960 安迪•沃霍尔

2 Pablo Picasso (Spanish 西班牙) Nature Morte aux Tulipes 自然靜物鬱金香
(US$41,522,500) US$334,903,375 巴勃罗•毕加索

3 Gerhard Richter (German 德國) Abstraktes Bild 抽象的圖像
(US$34,273,027) US$298,932,200 格哈德•里希特

4 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (Chinese 中國) 祖國頌 (Ode to the Mother Country)
(US$13,286,904) US$261,662,966 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石

5 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (Chinese 中國) 紅妝步障 (Red Cosmetics and A Screen)
(US$6,927,162) US$242,435,004 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千

6 Mark Rothko (American 美國) Orange, Red, Yellow 橘子, 紅色, 黃色
(US$86,882,496) US$187,165,870 馬克·羅斯科

7 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (Chinese 中國) 萬山紅遍 (Mountains in Red)
(US$46,030,323) US$180,362,333 李可染 Li Keran 李可染

8 Francis Bacon (Irish 愛爾蘭) Figure Writing Reflected in Mirror 鏡中反射的人物寫生
(US$44,882,500) US$172,183,728 弗朗西斯•培根

9 Jean-Michel Basquiat (American 美國) Untitled 無題目
(US$26,402,500) US$161,492,045 讓·米歇爾·巴斯奎特

10 Joan Miro (Spanish 西班牙) Peinture (Etoile Bleue) 藍色星辰
(US$37,063,473) US$155,182,091 璜安·米羅

World Top 15 highest-selling artists in 2011

2011年列名世界拍賣收入記錄前15名的畫家

#1 Zhang Daqian 张大千 US$554.53 million
#2 Qi Baishi 齐白石 US$510.57 million
#3 Andy Warhol 安迪•沃霍尔 US$325.88 million
#4 Pablo Picasso 巴勃罗•毕加索 US$314.69 million
#5 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 US$233.48 million
#6 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 US$221.15 million
#7 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 US$198.33 million
#8 Gerhard Richter 格哈德•里希特 US$175.67 million
#9 Francis Bacon 弗朗西斯•培根 US$129.20 million
#10 Li Keran 李可染 US$115.36 million
#11 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 US$105.68 million
#12 Clyfford E. Still 克莱福特•斯蒂尔 US$101.55 million
#13 Huang Zhou 黄胄 US$98.95 million
#14 Zao Wou-ki 赵无极 US$91.91 million
#15 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 US$91.79 million

Chinese artists listed in the 2011 world auction revenue top 30 record have been published.

2011年列名世界拍賣總收入記錄前30名的中國畫家名單已公佈

No. 1 第1名為張大千 Zhang Daqian (1899-1983) 张大千,
No. 2 第2名為齊白石 Qi Baishi (1864-1957) 齐白石,
No. 5 第5名為徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鸿,
No. 6 第6名為吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吴冠中,
No. 7 第7名為傅抱石 Fu Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石,
No. 10 第10名為李可染 Li Keran (1907-1989) 李可染,
No. 11 第11名為陸儼少 Lu Yanshao (1909-1993) 陆俨ऴ

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