Medal To 14486355 Cpl A. Crick. Foresters with Palestine clasp



2019-09-09 11:45:46

The Mandate for Palestine was a "Class A" League of Nations mandate for British administration of the territories of Palestine and Transjordan, both of which had been conceded by the Ottoman Empire following World War I. The mandate was assigned to Britain in April 1920 following France's concession of the previously agreed "international administration" over Palestine; Transjordan was subsequently added to the mandate after the Arab Kingdom in Damascus was toppled by the French. Civil administration began in Palestine and Transjordan in July 1920 and April 1921, respectively, and the mandate was formally in force between 29 September 1923 and 15 May 1948.

The mandate document was based on the principles contained in Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations of 28 June 1919 and of the Supreme Council of the Principal Allied Powers' San Remo Resolution of 25 April 1920. The objective of the system of Class A mandates was to administer parts of the defunct Ottoman Empire "until such time as they are able to stand alone". The border between Palestine and Transjordan was agreed in the mandate document, and the approximate northern border with the French Mandate was agreed upon in the Paulet–Newcombe Agreement of 23 December 1920.

In Palestine, the Balfour Declaration's "national home for the Jewish people" was to be established alongside the Palestinian Arabs, who composed the vast majority of the local population; this requirement, amongst others, was not to apply to the separate Arab Emirate to be established in Transjordan. The British controlled Palestine for almost three decades, overseeing a succession of protests, riots and revolts between the Jewish and Palestinian Arab communities. On 29 November 1947, the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was passed, envisaging the creation of separate Jewish and Arab states operating under economic union with Jerusalem being transferred to UN trusteeship. Two weeks later, Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones announced that the British Mandate would terminate on 15 May 1948. On the last day of the Mandate, the creation of the State of Israel was proclaimed, and the 1948 Arab–Israeli War began.

Transjordan was added to the mandate following a March 1921 conference at which it was agreed that Abdullah bin Hussein would administer the territory under the auspices of the Palestine Mandate. After the war it had been administered from Damascus by a joint Arab-British military administration, headed by Abdullah's younger brother Faisal, who was subsequently proclaimed King. Transjordan became a no man's land after the French defeated Faisal's army in July 1920, after which the British chose to avoid any definite connection with Palestine. The addition of Transjordan was given legal form on 21 March 1921 when the British introduced Article 25 into the Palestine Mandate, which included Transjordan within the scope. On 16 September 1922, Article 25 was implemented via the Transjordan memorandum, which established a separate "Administration of Trans-Jordan" for the application of the Mandate, under the general supervision of Great Britain. In April 1923, five months before the mandate came into force, Britain announced their intention to recognise an "independent Government" in Transjordan, autonomy increased further under a 20 February 1928 treaty, and the state became fully independent under the independence treaty of 22 March 1946

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